Allusions 1701-1800 (texts)
By Henrik Thiil Nielsen, 2013-08-01. Revised by Henrik Thiil Nielsen, 2017-05-06.
The following 19 allusions are found for the period 1701-1800:
[...] Thence by Darrington and Stapleton Lees to Wentbrig, beyond which, upon the heights, may be seen York Minster, and it is said, also, that of Lincoln, but it was too duskish for us to do it; what I was more intent upon was the famous Roman highway, which is not only visible for several miles, but its complete dimensions, near which we drank at a curious spring, which receives its denomination from Robin Hood, the noted outlaw; after which we left the common road to Doncaster, and followed the old one, as is evident from the said Roman rig, which we followed for some time, in our road to Sprotburgh [...]
22 jan. 1712-13
Robin Hood the famous Out-law was buried in the Nunnery Church of Kirkley in ye County of York. Leland. ibid. p. 53.
[Drawing in William Stukeley's MS Diary:] Robin Hood's well and the Hermen street, 20 Sept., 1725.
Kirkleys Nunnery, towards Wakefield, now in the Possession of Sir John Armitage. A very learned Writer seems to be mistaken, in calling it Birkleys where (says he) Robin Hood was bled to Death in the Time of King Richard the first. But if we believe Mr. Camden, it must be Kirkleys aforesaid, which he confirms, by declaring, that in the same Nunnery that genteel Robber had a Tomb over him; tho' others write, it was where his Arrow fell, in the Highway-side. This Story has been told me, That his Tomb Stone, having his Effigy thereon, was order'd, not many Years ago, by a certain Knight to be placed as a Harth Stone in his great Hall. When it was laid over the Night, the next Morning it was surprizing removed one Side; and so three times it was laid, and as successively turned aside. The Knight thinking he had done wrong to have it brought thither, order'd it should be drawn back again; which was perform'd by a pair of Oxen and four Horses, when twice the Number could scarce do it before. But as this is a Story only, it is left to the Reader, to judge at pleasure.
Over a Spring, call'd Robin Hood's Well, (3 or 4 Miles this Side of Doncaster, and but a Quarter if a Mile only from 2 Towns call'd Skelbrough and Bourwallis) is a very handsome Stone Arch, erected by the Lord Carlisle, where [p. 235:] Passengers from the Coach frequently drink of the fair Water, and give their Charity to two People who attend there.
So likewise a Part of the Sea takes its Name from this famous Robber, call'd Robin Hood's Bay, not very far from Whitby.
Wakefield, a fair, uniform, large Town, well situated in the W. R. and Agbridge 100, 20 Miles S. of York, with 2 Markets on Thursdays and Fridays for Cloth, Provisions, &c. a great Clothing Town. It is noted for a Battle between the Houses of Lancaster and York, where Richard Duke of York Father to Edw. IV. was slain, whose Head was afterwards crown'd with Ivy at York Castle. In this Town was born John Green, the famous Pinder, who fought Robin Hood so manfully. It stands on the River Calder, over which is a fair Stone Bridge, and on it a fine Chapel, built by the said King Edward IV. in Memory of, and to pray for those, who with his Father lost their Lives in that Battle.
At Doncaster. A chapel, and a bridg with a gate over it. A man in armour, over the gate, in a threatening posture, looking over the battlements, cut in stone. Danum, Daunum, Caer Daun, by Neunius, was the station of the Equites Crispiani; the name is British, Davon the river, now Don. On this side Robin Hood's well, the Roman road appears in a very elevated ridg, composed of a huge body of stone, for miles together. Robin Hood's well a pretty ornament to the road; Sir John Vanbrugh the architect.
"Nympha fui quondam latronibus hospita sylvæ
"Heu nimium sociis nota, Robine tuis.
"Me pudet innocuos latices fudisse scelestis,
"Jamque viatori pocula tuta fero,
"En pietatis honos! Comes hanc mihi Carliolensis
"Ædem sacravit quâ bibis, hospes, aquas.
[...] my friend Dr. Stukeley of Stamford [...], by whom, being a member, we have been favoured with his minutes of their Society there, wherein are, amongst many very curious acts and observations, many remarks he made, in a journey he took to visit Mr. Gale of Scruton, his lady's brother, on many parts of Lincolnshire, Nottinghamshire, and Yorkshire, which with his good leave I lay together and extract, but pretty fully and occasionally communicated at our meetings, much being discovered since Camden's time, and many of these not noticed in the additions to his Britannia, or in the Atlas or other authors, and some of those in Yorkshire which have escaped the mention of Dr. Heneage Deering, Archdeacon of Rippon, in his "Reliquiæ Eboracenses," a quarto poem printed at York in 1743. Give me leave to send you here an epigram from the second volume of the Doctor's Minutes, p. 596, made by his brother Gale on [p. 497:] Robin Hood's well, a fine spring on the road, ornamented by Sir John Vanbrugh:
"Nympha fui quondam latronibus hospita sylvæ
"Heu nimium sociis nota, Robine tuis.
"Me pudet innocuos latices fudisse scelestis,
"Jamque viatori pocula tuta fero,
"En pietatis honos! Comes hanc mihi Carliolensis
"Ædem sacravit quâ bibis, hospes, aquas.
[p. 73:] Near this Well [...] which is frequented by many Persons as a cold Bath, and reckoned the 2d. coldest in England, there stood anciently a Chappel dedicated to St. Anne, whence the Well obtained the Name it bears, tho' before this Chappel was built, it was known by the Name of Robin Hood's Well, by some called so to this day. The People who keep the Green and Public House to promote a Holy-day Trade, shew an old wickered Chair, which they call Robin Hood's Chair, a Bow, and an old Cap, both these they affirm to have been this famous Robber's Property; [...] this little Artifice takes so well with the People in low-Life, that at Christmas, Easter and Whitsuntide, it procures them a great deal of Business, for at those Times great Numbers of young Men bring their Sweethearts to this Well, and give them a Treat, and the Girls think themselves ill-used, if they have not been saluted by their Lovers in Robin Hood's Chair.
Of the Chappel I find no Account; but that there has been one in this Place is visible, for the East Wall of that quondam Chappel supports the East side of the House, which is built on the Spot where that Place of Worship stood. In the Room of the Altar is now a great Fire-place, over which was found upon a Stone the Date of the building of the Chappel, viz. 1409, which whilst legible one Mr. Ellis a Watchmaker took down into his Pocket-Book, and communicated to me; by this it appears that it was built in the Reign of King Henry IV. 335 Years ago, and who knows whether it might not be founded by that King, who resided about that Time at Nottingham; it did not stand much above 200 Years, for my oft mentioned Anonymous Author does not remember any of the Ruins of the Chappel, who wrote his Account in 1641, which however he might plainly have seen, had he taken Notice of the East Wall of Stone, when all the rest of the present House is a Brick Building.
ST. Anne's Well was about a hundred Years ago, a very famous Place of Resort, concerning which take the above Author's Account in his own words.
AT the Well there is a Dwelling House serving as an Habitation for the Woodward of those Woods, being an Officer of the Mayor. This House is likewise a Victualling House, having adjoining to it fair Summer-Houses, Bowers or Arbours covered by the plashing and interweaving of Oak-Boughs for Shade, in which are Tables of large Oak Planks, and are seated about with Banks of Earth, fleightered and covered with green Sods, like green Carsie Cushions. There is also a Building containing two fair Rooms, an upper and a lower, serving for such as repair thither to retire in Case of Rain or bad Weather. Thither do the Townsmen resort [...] by an ancient Custom beyond Memory.
THIS Well is all Summer long much frequented, and there are but few fair Days between March and October, in which some Company or other of the Town, such as use to Consort [sic] there, use not to fetch a walk to this Well, either to dine or sup, or both, some sending their provision to be dressed, others bespeaking what they will have, and when any of the Town have their Friends come to them, they have given them no welcome, unless they entertain them at this Well. Besides [p. 74:] there are many other Meetings of Gentlemen, both from the Town and the Country, making Choice of this Place rather than the Town for their Rendezvous to recreate themselves at, by Reason of the sweetness and openness of the Air, where besides their Artificial, they have Natural Music without Charge; in the Spring by the Nightingale and in the Autumn by the Wood-Lark, a Bird whose Notes for Variety and sweetness are nothing inferiour to the Nightingale, and much in her Tones, which filled with the Voices of other Birds like inward parts in Song serve to double the melodious Harmony of those sweet warbling Trebles. Here are likewise many Venison Feasts, and such as have not the Hap to feed the Sense of Taste with the Flesh thereof when dead, may yet still fill their Sight with those Creatures living, [...] which all Summer long are picking up Weeds in the Corn-Fields and Closes, and in Winter and hard Weather, gathering Sallets in the Garden of such Houses as lie on the North-side of the Town.
AMONG other Meetings I may not omit one Royal and remarkable Assembly at this Place, whereof myself was an Eye Witness, which was that it pleased our late Sovereign king James, in his Return from Hunting in this Forest, to Honour this Well with his Royal Presence, ushered by that Noble Lord Gilbert Earl of Shrewsbury, and attended by many others of the Nobility, both of the Court and Country, where they drank the Woodward and his Barrels dry."
Left Scarborough, passed over large moors to Robin Hood's Bay. On my round, observed the vast mountains of alum stone, from which that salt is thus extracted: It is first calcined in great heaps, which continue burning by its own phlogiston, after being well set on fire by coals, for six, ten, or fourteen months, according to the size of the heap, some being equal to a small hill. It is then thrown into pits and steeped in water, to extract all the saline particles. The liquor is then run into other pits, where the vitriolic salts are precipitated, by the addition of a solution of the sal sodæ, prepared from kelp; or by the volatile alkali of stale urine. The superfluous water being then evaporated duely by boiling in large furnaces, the liquor is set to cool; and lastly, is poured into large casks, to crystallize.
The alum works of this county are of some antiquity; they were first discovered by Sir Thomas Chaloner, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, who observing the trees tinged with an unusual color, made him suspicious of its being owing to some mineral in the neighborhood. He found out that the strata abounded with an aluminous salt.
At that time, the English being strangers to the method of managing it, there is a tradition that Sir Thomas was obliged to seduce some workmen from the Pope's alum-works near Rome then the greatest in Europe. If one may judge from the curse which his Holiness thundered out against Sir Thomas and [p. 22:] the fugitives, he certainly was not a little enraged; for he cursed by the very form that Ernulphus* has left us, and not varied a tittle from that most comprehensive of imprecations.
The first pits were near Gisborough, the seat of the Chaloners, who still flourish there, notwithstanding his Holiness's anathema. The works were so valuable as to be deemed a royal mine. Sir Paul Pindar, who rented them, payed annually to the King 12,500l. to the Earl of Musgrave 1,640l. to Sir William Pennyman 600l. kept 800 workmen in pay, and sold his alum at 26 l. per tun. But this monopoly was destroyed on the death of Charles I. and the right restored to the proprietors.
In these alum rocks are frequently found cornua ammonis, and other fossils, lodged in a stony nodule. Jet is sometimes met with in thin flat pieces, externally of the appearance of wood. According to Solinus, Britain was famous for this fossil**.
The sands near Robin Hood's village were covered with fish of several kinds, and with people who met the cobles in order to purchase their cargo: the place seemed as if a great fish fair had been held there; some were carrying off their bargains, others busied in curing the fish; and a little out at sea was a fleet of cobles and five men boats, and others arriving to discharge the capture of the preceding [p. 23:] tides*. There are 36 of the first belonging to this little place. The houses here make a grotesque appearance, are scattered over the face of a steep cliff in a very strange manner, and fill every projecting ledge, one above another, in the same manner as the peasants do in the rocky parts of China. Sand's End, Runwick, and Staithes, three other fishing-towns on this coast, are (as I am told) built in the same manner.
The country through this day's journey was hilly, the coast high.
On Saltonstall moor [...] Soon after I had left the moor, on the right side of the road leading to the village of Luddenden, I saw what is generally called Robin Hood's Penny-stone, for the country people here attribute every thing of the marvellous kind to Robin Hood, as in Cornwall they do to king Arthur. Thus, for instance, he is said to have used this stone to pitch with at a mark for amusement; and to have thrown the standing stone in Sowerby off an adjoining hill with a spade as he was digging; but I confess, that some of the common people will smile when they relate these stories; they are not quite so credulous now as their great grandfathers were. This last mentioned remain is a stone of several tons weight, laid upon a massy piece of rock, with a large pebble of a different grit between them, which is wedged so fast, that it is very plain it was put there by human art, or strength. I could not learn whether this [p. 28:] would ever rock or not, (meeting with but one person to converse with,) but if it did, probably it was poised on this pebble, and might some time or other have been thrown off its center. (See No. 6. of the plate.)
Callis. An house which some believe to be the oldest in the vicarage, and where tradition sais [sic] that Robin Hood some time resided; but no other marks of its antiquity appear at present, than that the north part of it is studded after the manner of building in former times. It might take its name from the Latin word Callis, which meant a path made by wild beasts in forests and mountains, and there was certainly fine shelter hereabouts for the deer in winter, and therefore a proper place for the residence of Robin Hood, who lived by his bow.
From his [i.e. Thomas Nettleton's] observations it likewise appears, that Halifax is in the latitude of 53. 47. that [sic] the height of Blackstone-edge, at Robin-hood's-bed, is two hundred and thirty-nine yards and a quarter; that Halifax Bank bears from this 60°. from north to east; Manchester 40. 30. from south to west; Rochdale 70. 20. from south to west.
In the days of this Abbot Richard, and Peter his successor, lived that famous and renowned outlaw Robin Hood, who took from the rich that he might have wherewithal to give to the poor. He many years kept under him a considerable number of men, who lived by rapine and plunder. He resided generally in Nottinghamshire, or the southern parts of Yorkshire: But when his robberies became so numerous, and the outcries against him so loud, as almost to alarm the whole nation, parties of soldiers were sent down from London to apprehend him: And then it was, that, fearing for his safety, he found it necessary to desert his usual haunts, and, retreating northward, to cross the moors that surrounded Whitby, where, gaining the sea-coast, he always had in readiness near at hand some small fishing vessels, to which he could have refuge, if he found himself pursued; for in these, putting oﬀ to sea, he looked upon himself as quite secure, and held the whole power of the English nation at deﬁance. The chief place of his resort at these times, where his boats were generally laid up, was about six miles from Whitby, to which he communicated his name, and which is still called Robin Hood's Bay. There he frequently went a fishing in the summer season, even when no enemy approached to annoy him; and not far from that place he had butts or marks set up, where he used to exercise his men in shooting with the long-bow. It was always believed that these butts had been erected by him for that very purpose, till the year 1771, when one of them being dug into, human bones were found therein, and it appeared they had been burying-places for the dead used by our pagan ancestors, either the Danes, the Saxons, or the ancient Britons, all of whom, it is certain, raised such kind of monuments over the bodies of their deceased friends and relations; which practice they borrowed from the Celts and Gauls; and these probably had it from the Jews, the Egyptians, and other eastern nations, who used it soon after Noah's ﬂood. However that be, there is no doubt but Robin made use of those houes or butts when he was disposed to exercise his men, and wanted to train them up in hitting a mark.
Tradition further informs us, that, in one of these peregrinations, he, attended by his trusty mate Little John, went to dine with the Abbot Richard, who, having heard them often famed for their great dexterity in shooting with the long-bow, begged them after dinner to shew him a specimen thereof; when, to oblige the Abbot, they went up to the top of the Abbey, whence each of them shot an arrow, which fell not far from Whitby-Laths, but on the contrary side of the lane; and in memorial thereof a pillar was set up [p. 147:] by the Abbot in the place where each of the arrows was found, which are yet sanding in these our days; that ﬁeld where the pillar for Robin Hood's arrow stands being sill called Robin Hood's Field, and the other where the pillar for Little John's arrow is placed, still preserving the name of John's Field. Their distance from Whitby-Abbey is more than a measured mile, which seems very far for the flight of an arrow, and is a circumstance that will stagger the faith of many; but as to the credibility of the story every reader may judge thereof as he thinks proper; only I must here beg leave to observe, that these very pillars are mentioned, and the ﬁelds called by the aforesaid names, in the old deeds for that ground, now in the possession of Mr. Thomas Watson.
It [sc. woolly boletus] is a rare plant here. The specimen from which this description and these figures are taken, grew in Robin Hood's Scar, in Southowram, near Halifax, in September, 1784.
THE FOREST OF SHIREWOOD.
WE are now arrived at that portion of our history where we must tread (I had almost said classic) magic ground, where beings like fairies danced; where deer sported in groupes [sic] unnumbered, and in limits almost unbounded; where Robin Hood, and his gay followers, performed their many and long renowned exploits; where the noble and ignoble, the king and the robber have, alike, dashed through the thicket and the woodland in pursuit of their nimble game. Here the stout archer with his bow, unmolested, traversed this vast domain, discharging his deadly darts. Here the spreading oak, the ornament of forests, stood for ages a grand monument of embellished nature, a shade and covert for the birds and beasts that inhabited this.—Here the little squirel [sic] above, sprang from spray to spray, exhibiting its playful attitudes, while the wolf below, in days or yore, made the woodlands eccho [sic] with its dreadful yells; or darting on its prey satiated its voracious appetite. Time, which works such mighty changes on the face of nature, in the passing of a few centuries, where man takes up his abode, exhibits here a scene extremely different to what it has been.—No more the woodland songsters, whose natal hymns delightfully celebrated each return of the heavenly orb, shall here be heard. All now is divided and subdivided into stumpy fences and right lined hedge rows, intersecting each other; which to him that delights in the grand and majestic scenes of nature, upon a large and varied scale, is cold and meanless [sic]. The stranger, who has sumptuous ides of field embellishments, and has refined his taste by reading and observation, if he expect to meet in this great forest any thing like what there has been, will be miserably disappointed. But no more, population in many instances, and avarice in others, have laid the splendour of nature in the dust: here granduer [sic] and sublimity is prostrate, degraded by culture, and lost, in that point of view, for ever.
St. ANN's WELL [aka Robin Hood's Well],
Near Nottingham, was, it is said, a sequestered haunt of the famous Robin Hood, which tradition has given celebrity for ages. It is situate within two miles North East of Nottingham, on the base of a hill, which a century ago, or less, was covered with fine ash trees and copice [sic], as well as a great part of the adjacent fields, which are now cleared of wood, and is [sic] become good land; some portion of which still retains the name of copice [sic] and belongs to the Burgesses of Nottingham. The house which is resorted to in summer time, stands near a Well, both which are shaded by first and other trees. —Here is a large bowling-green, and a little neglected pleasure ground. [p. 171:] The Well is under an arched stone roof, of rude workmanship, the water is very cold, it will kill a toad. [...] It is used by those who are afflicted with rheumatic pains; and indeed, like man other popular springs, for a variety of disorders. At the house were formerly shewn several things said to have belonged to Robin Hood; but they are frittered down to what are now called his cap, or helmet, and a part of his chair. As these have passed current for many years, and perhaps ages, as things once belonging to that renowned robber, I sketched them. They are represented on the annexed plate.
A remarkable circumstance happened here about fifty years since. The story is told thus: A regiment of dragoons lay at Nottingham, at that time, and five of the men agreed to go a deer-stealing, for which purpose they traversed, in the night, over a great extent of country, in vain. Chagrined at the disappointment, in passing over av eminence called Shepherd's-Race [aka Robin Hood's Race], near St. Ann's Well, two of them agreed to go down the hill and steal some geese belonging to the people who lived at St. Ann's Well.A young man who was a servant in the family, and had been out late in company instead of going to bed layed [sic] himself down upon a table in a room, or some other ready and convenient place, where he slept sometime; but was awakened by the noise of the frighted geese, which were disturbed by the soldiers attempting to steal them. The young man being a little elevated in liquor had the temerity to go from the house with an intent to protect his master's or mistress's property, in which attempt he was shot through the head, by a piece placed so near him that his brains were seen scattered about him, were [sic] he fell, in a variety of directions.
The particulars concerning this murder did not come out till about 20 years after the transaction, when two old pensioners, from Chelsea Hospital, were taken up for the fact, and brought to Nottingham gaol; but it turned out that the principals, in the horrid deed, were dead.
- Thoresby, Ralph; Hunter, Joseph, ed. The Diary of Ralph Thoresby, F.R.S., Author of the Topography of Leeds (1677-1724.) (London, 1830), vol. 1, p. 411.
- Hearne, Thomas; Rannie, D.W., ed. Remarks and Collections of Thomas Hearne, vol. IV (Oxford Historical Society, vol. XXXIV) (Oxford, 1898); see p. 57, and p. 56 for date.
- Stukeley, William; [W.C. Lukis, ed.] The Family Memoirs of the Rev. William Stukeley (The Publications of the Surtees Society, vols. LXXIII, LXXVI, LXXX) (1882-87), vol. III, p. 500.
- Gent, Thomas. The Antient and Modern History of the Famous City of York (York and London, 1730), p. 234.
- Gent, Thomas. The Antient and Modern History of the Famous City of York (York and London, 1730), pp. 234-35.
- Gent, Thomas. The Antient and Modern History of the Famous City of York (York and London, 1730), p. 235.
- Gent, Thomas. The Antient and Modern History of the Famous City of York (York and London, 1730), p. 253.
- Stukeley, William; [W.C. Lukis, ed.] The Family Memoirs of the Rev. William Stukeley (The Publications of the Surtees Society, vols. LXXIII, LXXVI, LXXX) (1882-87), vol. III, p. 393.
- Nichols, John, ed. Bibliotheca Topographica Britannica No. II. Part III (London, 1781), p. 427.
- Nichols, John, ed. Bibliotheca Topographica Britannica No. II. Part III (London, 1781), pp. 426-27.
- Deering, Charles. Nottinghamia Vetus et Nova or an Historical Account of the Ancient and Present State of the Town of Nottingham (Nottingham, 1751), pp. 72-74.
- [Pennant, Thomas]. A Tour in Scotland. MDCCLXIX (Chester, 1771), pp. 21-23.
- Watson, John. The History and Antiquities of the Parish of Halifax, in Yorkshire (London, 1775), pp. 27-28, and plate facing p. 18.
- Watson, John. The History and Antiquities of the Parish of Halifax, in Yorkshire (London, 1775), p. 293.
- Watson, John. The History and Antiquities of the Parish of Halifax, in Yorkshire (London, 1775), p. 497.
- Charlton, Lionel. The History of Whitby, and of Whitby Abbey. Collected rom the original Records of the Abbey, and other authentic Memoirs, never before made public. Containing, Not only the History of Whitby and the Country adjacent, but also the Original and Antiquity of many particular Families and Places in other Parts of Yorkshire (York; London; Whitby, 1779), pp. 146-47.
- Bolton, James. An History of Fungusses, growing about Halifax (Halifax; London; Oxford, Cambridge, York, Edinburgh, 1788), p. 87; and see plate 87.
- Thoroton, Robert. The Antiquities of Nottinghamshire: Extracted out of Records, Original Evidences, Leiger-books, Other Manuscripts, and Authentic Authorities. Beautified with Maps, Prospects, and Portraitures. 2nd ed. (Nottingham, 1790), vol. II, p. 157.
- Thoroton, Robert. The Antiquities of Nottinghamshire: Extracted out of Records, Original Evidences, Leiger-books, Other Manuscripts, and Authentic Authorities. Beautified with Maps, Prospects, and Portraitures. 2nd ed. (Nottingham, 1790), vol. II, pp. 170-71.