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Robhoods of Walsham le Willows (record texts)

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Walsham le Willows.
Willows in Walsham le Willows (photo: Bob Jones)

By Henrik Thiil Nielsen, 2013-09-09. Revised by Henrik Thiil Nielsen, 2017-06-01. Information from Robert Lynley.

"Robhood" is in evidence as a family name in Walsham le Willows (Suffolk) from 1283 to 1628.[1] By 1577 and probably already by the mid-15th century, "Robwood" had become the standard form of the name.[2] For other examples of 'Wood' for 'Hood', see the page on Wood for Hood. Entries relating to the Robhoods occur frequently in the local court rolls from 1317 to 1350.[3] The form found there is almost exclusively "Robhood" (or "Robhod"). This also is the form used in the first (1283) citation.

Below I include links to the known record references to the Robhoods of Walsham le Willows that use the form Robhood ("Robehod", "Robhode" etc.) and date from 1350 or earlier. I have made only one entry of a record citing the "Robwood" form of the name as these tend to occur later and have very little direct bearing on the early history of the Robin Hood tradition.[4]

While the evidence relating to the Robhoods of Walsham does not throw any light on the etymology of this rare surname, it is of considerable interest for other reasons:

  • some members of the Robhood family were also called "le Fenere", i.e. Fenner, during the first half of the 14th century (see under Alice Robhood below). This illustrates an important fact which some historians have sometimes forgotten: a person at this time could be referred to by more than one secondary identifier. We cannot really call the latter a surname at this time, for surnames only evolved gradually as words or phrases used to uniquely identify persons in contexts were this was required, i.e. records of payments, debts, crimes, land owned, services owed etc. etc. If two or more descriptive phrases could each be used to identify a person uniquely or at least with sufficient precision, that person can be said to have (potentially) had more than one surname, but talk of surnames is somewhat anachronistic when dealing with this period. The lesson to take away is this: a given person can figure in the records under a "Robinhood" type "surname" as well as another "surname" without one being his "real surname" and the other a "nick name". As names they are bot equally real or, if you like, unreal. It is probably a fair generalization to say that the use of surnames started among the higher social classes and gradually percolated to the lower classes.
  • Robhood becomes Robwood. In view of Robin Hood's sylvan abode and later sporadic occurrences of the form "Robin Wood" ("Robin Whood" etc.), this is an interesting development (or vacillation).
  • the Walsham le Willows court rolls for 1344 twice mention a road called Robhodway. It is of course nearly unthinkable that this should be entirely unrelated to the local Robhood family name. Of course, if the road name was inspired by the surname, any connection it might have with Robin Hood is indirect and dependent on any connection between the surname and the outlaw. If we had not known about the existence of people with the surname Robhood in Walsham le Willows, we should have been much more inclined to regard Robhodway as a bona fide Robin Hood-related place-name. This case thus provides a salutary warning against assuming a priori that every single place name that includes "Robin Hood" or "Robinhood" is necessarily named after the outlaw.
  • in view of the surname and the place name it is intriguing to find also in the court rolls what appears to be a reference to a Maypole at Walsham le Willows at a quite early date. However, analysis of the evidence has led me to conclude that the court roll entry in all probabability refers to a maple (tree). See below under the heading "Maypole or maple".

R. Robehod

R. Robehod (fl. 1283) is the first person we know of with this surname in Walsham le Willows. McLaughlin refers to him as Robert Robwood.[5], but the published record (see 1283 record listed below) cites the name as "R. Robehod", and as pointed out by Robert Lynley, there does not seem to be any record evidence citing his Christian name.

See the following entry:

1283 - R. Robehod of Walsham le Willows

[1283; name on lay subsidy, under heading 'Walesham':]
R. Robehod[6]

William Robhood (I)

When the Robhoods of Walsham le Willows first appear in the court rolls, the first known Robhood, William Robhood, has died and we know of him only because entries relating to his wife Alice refer to her as "Alice, widow of William Robhood" or similar (see section on Alice Robhood below). I have designated this man "William Robhood (I)" as he is the first known person of that name at the locality. He may have had ancestors with the same name. The first entry relating to William Robhood (I) refers to him as William Fenner ('le Fenere'), a surname for whích the etymologies "huntsman" or "fen-dweller" have been suggested[7]

See the following entries:

1317 - William Robhood of Walsham le Willows (1)

[11 Oct. 1317:]
Robert Hereward amerced 6d. because he unlawfully deprived Alice the widow of William Robhood12 of her rightful dower of the tenement, formerly held by William in bondage, viz. half a messuage 1½a. of land; ordered the reeve and Hayward to have her rightful dower delivered to Alice, following the verdict of the homage and the custom of the manor.13 Alice pays 6d. fined for entry, pledge Walter Rampolye.

Matthew Hereward amerced 6d. because he did not attend when he was summoned, and ordered to take into the lord's hands half of 1½a., which Alice [Alice Robwood] claims in dower; ordered to summon Matthew to be at the next court to reply etc., and the same day given to Alice.14[8]

1318 - William Robhood of Walsham le Willows (1)

[17 Jan. 1318:]
Matthew Hereward amerced 6d. for leave to agree with Alice the widow of William Robhood in a plea of detention, pledge the hayward.[9]

1319 - William son of Alice Robhood of Walsham le Willows

[16 Jan. 1319:]
Robert Hereward amerced 6d., William the son of Alice Robhood 3d, William the smith \afterwards he came/, Richard Patel 6d. and Bartholomew Patel 3d. for default.[10]

Alice Robhood

Alice Robhood is referred to in the court rolls chiefly as the widow of William Robhood (I), but in 1317 she is mentioned as Alice Robwood.[11] The first entry relating to Alice Robhood refers to her as the widow of William Fenner ('le Fenere'), a surname for whích the etymologies "huntsman" or "fen-dweller" have been suggested[12]

See the following entries:

1317 - William Robhood of Walsham le Willows (1)

[11 Oct. 1317:]
Robert Hereward amerced 6d. because he unlawfully deprived Alice the widow of William Robhood12 of her rightful dower of the tenement, formerly held by William in bondage, viz. half a messuage 1½a. of land; ordered the reeve and Hayward to have her rightful dower delivered to Alice, following the verdict of the homage and the custom of the manor.13 Alice pays 6d. fined for entry, pledge Walter Rampolye.

Matthew Hereward amerced 6d. because he did not attend when he was summoned, and ordered to take into the lord's hands half of 1½a., which Alice [Alice Robwood] claims in dower; ordered to summon Matthew to be at the next court to reply etc., and the same day given to Alice.14[13]

1318 - William Robhood of Walsham le Willows (1)

[17 Jan. 1318:]
Matthew Hereward amerced 6d. for leave to agree with Alice the widow of William Robhood in a plea of detention, pledge the hayward.[14]

1319 - William son of Alice Robhood of Walsham le Willows

[16 Jan. 1319:]
Robert Hereward amerced 6d., William the son of Alice Robhood 3d, William the smith \afterwards he came/, Richard Patel 6d. and Bartholomew Patel 3d. for default.[15]

William Robhood (II)

William Robhood (II), was the son of William Robhood (I) and Alice Robhood.

See the following entries:

1317 - William Robhood of Walsham le Willows (2)

[11 Oct. 1317:]
William Robhood amerced 6d. for waste made in the lord's bondage; ordered to seize and retain all his tenement in the lord's hands until etc.[16]

1317 - William Robhood of Walsham le Willows (3)

[11 Oct. 1317:]
Walter Doo, Robert the tailor, Robert Hereward, William Robhood and Ralph Echeman each amerced 3d. for default.[17]

1318 - William Robhood of Walsham le Willows (2)

[17 Jan. 1318:]
Robert Tailor and William Robhood each paid 3d. fine for [respite of] suit of court until Michaelmas, pledge for Robert John Man, for William Nicholas Kembald.[18]

1319 - William Robhood of Walsham le Willows (1)

[20 Apr. 1319:]
William Robhood amerced 6d. for waste in the lord's bondage, and he has a day to make it good until Michaelmas, pledges Nicholas Kembald and William Cook.[19]

1319 - William Robhood of Walsham le Willows (2)

[7 Aug. 1319:]
William Robhood amerced 3d. for default, and he has a day to make good waste in the lord's bondage until Michaelmas, pledges Nicholas Kembald and William Cook.[20]

1319 - William son of Alice Robhood of Walsham le Willows

[16 Jan. 1319:]
Robert Hereward amerced 6d., William the son of Alice Robhood 3d, William the smith \afterwards he came/, Richard Patel 6d. and Bartholomew Patel 3d. for default.[21]

1328 - William Robhood of Walsham le Willows

[11 May 1328:]
Surrender: William Robhood to Matthew Hereward and his heirs, [a piece of] land, 7ft. wide and 30p. 2ft. long, lying between Matthew's land on both sides, granted to him to hold in villeinage at the lord's will, fine 2d.; he swore servile fealty.[22]

1329 - William Robhood of Walsham le Willows (1)

[17 Mar. 1329:]
William Robhood pays 12d. fine for leave to sell by charter 1a. of free land in Ashfield, pledges the hayward and Hilary, the widow of William Cook.[23]

1329 - William Robhood of Walsham le Willows (2)

[28 Jul. 1329:]
William Robhood pays 6d. fine [sic][24]

1329 - William Robhood of Walsham le Willows (3)

[28 Jul. 1329:]
William Robhood amerced 2d. because he sold 1a. of land to William Springold without leave; ordered to take into the lord's hands, and to report the profits.[25]

1332 - John and William Robhood of Walsham le Willows

[28 Apr. 1332:]
John Robhood amerced 3d. for default; William Robhood and William Warde 2d. each for the same.[26]

1332 - William Robhood of Walsham le Willows

[28 Apr. 1332:]
William Robhood amerced 2d. because he withheld 1d. annual rent.[27]

1333 - William Robhood of Walsham le Willows

[17 May 1333:]
Surrender: William Robhood to Thomas of the Beck and his heirs, 1a. of land in Stowemerefield, granted to him in the same form as above, fine 12d., pledge the hayward.[28]

Peter Robhood (I)

It is not clear how this Peter Robhood was related to the other Robhoods. It is possible but does not seem likely, in view of the somewhat large gap in time, that he should be identified with Peter Robhood (II) below.[29]

See the following entry:

1317 - Peter Robhood of Walsham le Willows

[11 Oct. 1317:]
\General Enquiry by William of Cranmer, Nicholas Goche, Peter Robhood [...] /[30]

1368 - Nicholas, Robert and Peter Robhood of Walsham le Willows

[5 Jul. 1368:]
Surrenders: [...] Nicholas Robhood to Robert Robhood and his heirs, 1a. 1r. of villein land with a
quarter of a messuage, granted to him by the rod, to hold by services and customs
etc., fine 40d, pledges Thomas Noble and Walter Fraunceys.
Peter Robhood to Robert Robhood and his heirs, 1a. 1r. of villein land and a quarter
of a messuage, granted to him in the same form, fine 40d. pledges as above.[31]

1370 - Nicholas and Peter Robhood of Walsham le Willows

[18 Mar. 1370:]
Ordered to attach Nicholas Robhood to reply to Peter Robhood in a plea of debt, and Alexander the clerk to reply to John Dynewald in a like plea.[32]

1370 - Peter Robhood of Walsham le Willows (1)

[18 Mar. 1370:]
William of Coddenham, defendant v. Peter Robhood in a plea of debt, [pledge] by John Margery [2][33]

1370 - Peter Robhood of Walsham le Willows (2)

[25 Jul. 1370:]
Peter Robhood amerced 3d. because he did not proceed against William of Coddenham in a plea of debt.[34]

1375 - Peter Robhood of Walsham le Willows (1)

[16 Jan. 1375:]
Elias Typetot, tenant of customary land, amerced 2s. because he complained against Peter Robhood and Adam Syre in a court outside the manor without the lord’s leave.[35]

1375 - Peter Robhood of Walsham le Willows (2)

[26 Feb. 1376:]
The first pledges of Peter Robhood amerced 3d. because they did not have him reply to Adam Pidelak in a plea of debt; ordered to find better pledges.[36]

1376 - Peter Robhood of Walsham le Willows (1)

[26 Feb. 1376:]
The first pledges of Peter Robhood amerced 3d. because they did not have him reply to
Adam Pidelak in a plea of debt; ordered to find better pledges.[37]

1376 - Peter Robhood of Walsham le Willows (2)

[26 Feb. 1376:]
The first pledges of Peter Robhood amerced 3d. because they did not have him reply to John Warde in a plea of trespass.[38]

1384 - Peter and Catherine Robhood of Walsham le Willows

[7 Sep. 1384:]
Surrender: Peter Robhood and Catherine Robhood, his wife, she being duly exam-
ined, surrendered to the lord 1r. of villein land, lying in two parcels in the
Wellfield, for him to dispose of it at his will; and the lord granted the said land to
Peter in the same form as above, fine 6d.[39]

1385 - Peter Robhood of Walsham le Willows (1)

[9 Mar. 138:]
Peter Robhood amerced 6d. and Roger Prede 2d., for damage with various beasts in
the same place [i.e. 'in the lord’s close at High Hall'].[40]

1385 - Peter Robhood of Walsham le Willows (2)

[9 Mar. 1385:]
John Jay and Peter Robhood, the ale-tasters, each amerced 2d. because they did not
do their duty.[41]

John Robhood (I)

John Robhood (I) died shortly before Mar 20 1365 (see 1365 entry below). It is not clear how he was related to the above Robhoods. He is referred to as a villein in the 1329 entry. He had six sons (see 1365 entry below): Robert, Nicholas, Peter, Walter, Richard and John (II).

See the following entries:

1328 - John Robhood of Walsham le Willows (1)

[8 Oct. 1328:]
William Cook and his wife amerced because they brewed and sold ale in breach of the assize, and because they did not send for the ale-tasters; Walter Rampolye amerced 12d., Walter Pye ed. for the same; Emma Kembald 6d. for the same, pledge John Robhood because in [his] house [...][42]

1328 - John Robhood of Walsham le Willows (2)

[8 Oct. 1328:]
William the son of Walter Patel and Walter Qualm have the same day, \pledge for not removing goods, William of Cranmer/; [...] John Robhood, \pledge William Hawys/ [...][43]

1329 - John Robhood of Walsham le Willows

[11 Dec. 1329:]
Ordered to attach John Robhood villein to receive his land, and to do to the lord that which he should. Afterwards he came and swore servile fealty.[44]

1332 - John and William Robhood of Walsham le Willows

[28 Apr. 1332:]
John Robhood amerced 3d. for default; William Robhood and William Warde 2d. each for the same.[45]

1333 - John Robhood of Walsham le Willows

[18 Oct. 1333:]
John Robhood pays 3d. fine for respite of suit of court until Michaelmas, pledge Robert Tailor.[46]

1334 - John Robhood of Walsham le Willows (1)

[25 Oct. 1334:]
John Robhood \and Thomas Fuller/ amerced 3d. because they did not come to work when summoned in the autumn [...][47]

1334 - John Robhood of Walsham le Willows (2)

[25 Oct. 1334:]
Richard Cranmer amerced 3d. because he did not come to work when summoned. Robert Rampolye, William Patel the younger, John Terwald, John Robhod [...] each amerced 3d. for the same.[48]

1335 - John Robhood of Walsham le Willows

[13 Jun. 1335:]
Ralph Echeman amerced 3d. because he demised, \and mortgaged for 9s./, to John the chaplain of Newmarket 3r. of land, without leave; John Robhood amerced 3d. because he demised, \and mortgaged for 12s./, to the same John, 1a. of land, without leave; ordered to take into the lord's hands etc. ...].

John Robhood amerced 3d. for default.[49]

1336 - John Robhood of Walsham le Willows

[5 Nov. 1336:]
John Robhood amerced 3d. for default

Thomas Hereward pays 12d. fine for having, by the demise of John Robhood, a term of three years from last Michaelmas, in 3a. of land, and a term of two years, from next Michaelmas, in a messuage, pledges Robert Hereward and the Hayward.[50]

1341 - John Robhood of Walsham le Willows (1)

[17 Dec. 1341:]
The profits from 1a. of land, now in the lord's hands because John Robhood sold it to Thomas Hereward without leave [amount to] 12d.; ordered to retain.[51]

1341 - John Robhood of Walsham le Willows (2)

[17 Dec. 1341:]
Surrender: John Robhood to Robert Lene and his heirs, 1½r. of land at the Regway, granted to him to hold in villeinage, by services and works etc., fine 12d., pledge the Hayward.[52]

1342 - John Robhood of Walsham le Willows

[15 Apr. 1342:]
John Robhood pays 6d. fine for repossessing 1a. of land, out of the lord's hands, [taken] because he sold it to Thomas Hereward without leave, pledge the Hayward. [...] Thomas Hereward amerced 3d. for unlawful detention of a gate, worth 7d., from John Robhood, the loss assessed at 8d.; ordered to raise.[53]

1344 - Robhodway (Walsham le Willows) (1)

[12 Apr. 1344:]
Thomas Fuller amerced 3d. for an encroachment at Staple way, digging on the common there, 4p. long and 4ft. wide, ordered etc., pledge the Hayward; and 3d. for making a pit on the common, digging clay at Robhodway; ordered. Walter Fuller amerced 3d. for the same. Roger the Prior of Ixworth did the same, ordered etc.[54]

1344 - Robhodway (Walsham le Willows) (2)

[12 Apr. 1344:]
Roger the Prior of Ixworth amerced 3d. for making an encroachment at Robhodway, digging a claypit on the common.10[55]

1347 - John Robhood of Walsham le Willows

[3 Aug. 1347:]
John Robhood and Walter Fuller each amerced 3d. for digging on the lord's common, pledge for both the Hayward.[56]

1348 - John Robhood of Walsham le Willows

[24 Oct. 1348:]
John Robhood pays 3d. fine for setting a boundary between himself and Thomas Fuller, opposite the garden of Walter Hereward; ordered that it be set by the General Enquiry.[57]

1350 - John Robhood of Walsham le Willows

[11 Nov. 1350:]
A day is given, at the request of the parties, between John Robhood, plaintiff and Peter Tailor, defendant, in a plea of trespass, until the next court, to come without essoin.[58]

1351 - John Robhood of Walsham le Willows

[19 Jan. 1351:]
De Petro Tayllour pro transgressione facta Johanni Robhod prout compertum est per inquisitionem ad dampnum taxatum ad viijd., plegius Johannes Spyleman. Et preceptum est levare.2

[Translation by Ray Lock:]
mercy [sic] 2d.     From Peter Tayllour for trespass done to John Robhood as was found
by the enquiry, to [his] loss assessed at 8d., pledge John Spyleman. And it was
ordered to raise.5[59]

1353 - John Robhood of Walsham le Willows

[9 Oct. 1353:]
John Fraunceys in mercy because he was summoned for winter work and did not
come;4 Robert Payn amerced 2d., William Swift \condoned because thresher/,
Adam Pidelak 2d., Olivia of Cranmer*. Simon White \condoned because
thresher/, John Margery 3d., John at the Meadow*, William Lene [2] 3d., John
Noble \condoned/, Walter Rampolye 2d., Robert Rampolye [2] the elder 2d.,
Joan Smith 3d., Thomas Noble 1d., John Pach 2d., John Shucford 2d., William
Elys 3d., Agnes Clevehog \condoned/, Richard Qualm*, Robert Rampolye [1]*,
John Patel [1]*, John Terwald*, John Robhood 1d., Robert Kembald*, Adam
Echeman 3d., William Cook [1] the elder 1d., Matthew Gilbert*, Nicholas Fuller
3d., Robert Lene [1] 3d., Edmund Lene 2d., Alice Pye*, William Warde*,
William Jay 3d., Robert Warde 1d. for the same.[60]

1354 - John Robhood of Walsham le Willows (1)

[15 Sep. 1354:]
John Robhood amerced 3d. because he dug on the lord’s common to the nuisance of
the lord and the townspeople.[61]

1354 - John Robhood of Walsham le Willows (2)

[15 Sep. 1354:]
Robert Typetot [I] and William Lene [I] were elected to the office of reeve; Robert Springold amd Thomas Hereward to the office of hayward, Robert took the oath; William Cook [2] and John Robhod to the office of woodward.[62]

1359 - John Robhood of Walsham le Willows

[4 Jul. 1359:]
John Robhood [1] amerced 3d. for trespass against Robert Jay, to his loss of 2½d.;
ordered to raise. The same Robert in mercy for trespass against the same John, to
the loss of 2d.; ordered to raise.6[63]

1360 - John Robhood of Walsham le Willows

[17 Feb. 1360:]
John Robhood [l] did damage \t2d./ in the lady’s rye with a horse, pledge the hayward.[64]

1361 - John Robhood of Walsham le Willows

[13 Jul. 1361:]
[The following] villein tenants of villein land: John Spileman, \Robert Spileman his
brother/, John Terwald, William Swift, John Patel [1], Nicholas Patel, William
Warde, Adam Echeman, Walter Fraunceys, John Robhood [1], Robert Warde,
Robert Man [1], Robert Lene [2], Simon Rampolye, Robert Payn, Richard
Qualm, John Fraunceys, William Jay, Robert Rampolye [1], Matthew Gilbert,
Robert Springold, Nicholas Deneys, Walter Rampolye, William Lene [1], Robert
Lene [1] the elder, William Smith and William Hawys came into court and swore
fealty to the lord.[65]

1362 - John Robhood of Walsham le Willows (1)

[31 Jan. 1362:]
John Robhood [1] amerced 3d. for damage in the lord's rye with a horse; William
Jay, Thomas Hereward and Nicholas Fuller each amerced 2d. for the same with
horses, and John Lester 12d. for the same with sheep; the prior of Ixworth
amerced 1d. for the same with bullocks and 3d. for the same with geese.[66]

1362 - John Robhood of Walsham le Willows (2)

[31 Jan. 1362:]
Thomas Farmer amerced 3d. for damage in the lord's wood with cows; John Lene 4d. for the same with sheep on the coppice (virgultum); Robert Springold amerced 16d., for the same in the lord's wood with horses; Cristiana Spileman 12d. for the same with three mares; John Robhood [I] 12d. for the same with three horses; Thomas Heyward 4d. for the same with a horse, and Thomas Kembald 6d. for the same with a foal.38[67]

1364 - John Robhood of Walsham le Willows (1)

[6 Jun. 1364:]
The first pledges of William Josse amerced 3d. because they did not have him reply
to John Robhood [1] in a plea of trespass; ordered to appoint four [new pledges].[68]

1364 - John Robhood of Walsham le Willows (2)

[23 Oct. 1364:]
Ordered to attach William Josse by four pledges to reply to John Robhood [1] in a
plea of trespass.63[69]

1364 - John Robhood of Walsham le Willows (3)

[23 Oct. 1364:]
John Robhood [1] and Robert Rampolye each amerced 6d. because they brewed and
sold ale in breach of the assize; Walter Rampolye 12d. for the same.[70]

1365 - John Robhood of Walsham le Willows and his sons

[20 Mar. 1365:]
The jurors present that John Robhood [1], who lately died, held from the lord a mes-
suage and 14a. of villein land, and the lord had as heriot a mare, worth ½ mark.
His sons, Robert, Nicholas, Peter, Walter, Richard and John, villeins by blood,
are his nearest heirs because the tenements are partible between males by the cus-
tom [of the manor].65 They came and received the said tenements from the lord to
hold to them and their heirs, by services etc., and they have entry by the heriot,
pledge for services Nicholas Patel.[71]

1390 - John and Peter Robhood of Walsham le Willows

[5 Apr. 1390:]
Surrenders [...] Peter Robhood to John Hereward and his heirs, a quarter part of a messuage and
1a. of land, parcel of the tenement formerly of John Robhood, granted to him in
the same form, fine 2s.[72]

1390 - John Robhood of Walsham le Willows and his sons

[5 Apr. 1390:]
Surrenders [...] Nicholas Robhood chaplain and Peter Robhood, outside the court, into the hands
of Walter Fraunceys the hayward, in the presence of Robert Robhood and others
of the homage, to the use of John Hawys and his heirs, 2a. of villein land, parcel
ofthe tenement formerly of John Robhood, granted to him in the same form, fine
40d.[73]

1396 - John Robhood of Walsham le Willows

[25 Sep. 1396:]
Surrenders: John Hawys to Nicholas Fuller and his heirs, 2a. of villein land formerly of John Robhood, granted to him in the same form as above, [i.e. 'to hold by the rod, at the lord's will, by services and customs etc.'][74] fine 20d.; also a small piece of land 6ft. wide and 36p. long, fine 4d., Nicholas swore fealty.[75]

Robert Robhood

Robert Robhood was one of the six sons of John Robhood (I); see 1365 entry relating to John Robhood (I) above.

See the following entries:

1365 - John Robhood of Walsham le Willows and his sons

[20 Mar. 1365:]
The jurors present that John Robhood [1], who lately died, held from the lord a mes-
suage and 14a. of villein land, and the lord had as heriot a mare, worth ½ mark.
His sons, Robert, Nicholas, Peter, Walter, Richard and John, villeins by blood,
are his nearest heirs because the tenements are partible between males by the cus-
tom [of the manor].65 They came and received the said tenements from the lord to
hold to them and their heirs, by services etc., and they have entry by the heriot,
pledge for services Nicholas Patel.[76]

1366 - Robert Robhood of Walsham le Willows (1)

[16 Jun. 1366:]
[...] Robert Robhood [essoined of common suit] by William Jay[77]

1366 - Robert Robhood of Walsham le Willows (2)

[16 Jun. 1366:]
Nicholas Patel, John Bolle, [...] Robert Robhood and Simon Rampolye each amerced ld. for default.[78]

1366 - Robert Robhood of Walsham le Willows (3)

[15 Sep. 1366:]
Simon Cokerel, William Smith and Robert Robhood each amerced 3d. for default.[79]

1367 - Robert Robhood of Walsham le Willows (1)

[4 Jan. 1367:]
John Hawys and Agnes Hawys his wife, without leave, demised half of a messuage to Robert Robhood, to hold for the lifetime of Agnes; ordered to take into the lord’s hands, and to report the profits.[80]

1367 - Robert Robhood of Walsham le Willows (2)

[18 May 1367:]
Enquiry by John Terwald, Nicholas Patel, John Sket, John Manser, John Margery [2], Adam Syre, Nicholas Fuller, Matthew Gilbert, Robert Kembald, Robert Payn and Adam Echeman, jurors, who say that John Hawys and Agnes Hawys his wife, she being duly examined, demised to Robert Robhood half of a villein messuage, to hold to the same Robert for the whole of the lifetime of the same Agnes; Robert pays 6d. fine for having his term, and he swore fealty.[81]

1367 - Robert Robhood of Walsham le Willows (3)

[3 Aug. 1367:]
Richard Patel the younger essoins of common suit by Richard of Caldewell; Robert <kwyword>Robhood</keyword> of the same by John Margery [2].[82]

1368 - Nicholas, Peter and Robert Robhood of Walsham le Willows

[11 Mar. 1368:]
Nicholas Robhood and Peter Robhood each amerced 3d. because they each sold
1a. 1r. of villein land with a fifth part of a messuage to Robert Robhood, their
brother, without leave; ordered etc.[83]

1368 - Nicholas, Robert and Peter Robhood of Walsham le Willows

[5 Jul. 1368:]
Surrenders: [...] Nicholas Robhood to Robert Robhood and his heirs, 1a. 1r. of villein land with a
quarter of a messuage, granted to him by the rod, to hold by services and customs
etc., fine 40d, pledges Thomas Noble and Walter Fraunceys.
Peter Robhood to Robert Robhood and his heirs, 1a. 1r. of villein land and a quarter
of a messuage, granted to him in the same form, fine 40d. pledges as above.[84]

1369 - Robert Robhood of Walsham le Willows (1)

[2 Jan. 1369:]
Cristiana Spileman essoins of common suit by Thomas Ring; Richard Patel of the same by Richard of Caldewell; [...] Robert Robhood of the same by Nicholas Patel; [...][85]

1369 - Robert Robhood of Walsham le Willows (2)

[2 Jan. 1369:]
[...] Robert Robhood, defendant v. John Torold in a plea of debt, by Elias Typetot \he places himself/.19[86]

1369 - Robert Robhood of Walsham le Willows (3)

[26 Apr. 1369:]
John Freberd amerced 2d. for leave to agree with John Frost in a plea of debt; Robert Robhood amerced 3d. for the same with John Torold in a like plea; [...][87]

1369 - Robert Robhood of Walsham le Willows (4)

[28 Aug. 1369:]
Robert Robhood amerced 3d. for unlawful detention of 3s. from John Torold, as found
by the enquiry, the loss assessed at 3d.; ordered to raise.[88]

1370 - Robert Robhood of Walsham le Willows (1)

[18 Mar. 1370:]
Robert Sate essoins of common suit by Nicholas Fuller; Robert Robhood of the same by Robert Kembald[89]

1370 - Robert Robhood of Walsham le Willows (2)

[25 Jul. 1370:]
Robert Robhood amerced 1d. because he did not warrant his essoin from the last court.[90]

1373 - Robert Robhood of Walsham le Willows

[26 Sep. 1373:]
Adam Syre, Nicholas Typetot, Elias Typetot, Robert Man [2], Robert Robhood, William of Coddenham, Alice Gilbert, William Gudgeon, Robert Warde, Robert Heming and John Skeat each amerced 3d. because they did not perform reaping service [‘reapale’], when ordered to do so in the autumn.[91]

1375 - Robert Robhood of Walsham le Willows (1)

[16 Jan. 1375:]
Richard Patel the younger amerced ld., Elias Typetot and Robert Robhood 3d. each for default of suit of court.[92]

1375 - Robert Robhood of Walsham le Willows (2)

[12 Sep. 1375:]
Robert Robhood amerced 2d. because he could not deny that he owed 20d. to Alice [p. 123:] Rampolye, as he was accused; ordered to raise from the said Robert to the use of the said Alice.[93]

1376 - Robert Robhood and tenement Robhood of Walsham le Willows

[11 Jun. 1376:]
Robert Robhood to John Hereward and his heirs, three parts of a messuage and 8a.3r.
of land of the tenement Robhood, granted to him in the same form [i.e. 'by the rod, to hold by services and customs etc.'], fine 20s.[94]

1384 - Robert Robhood of Walsham le Willows

[7 Sep. 1384:]
The first pledges of Robert Robhood \he puts himself/ amerced 3d. because they did
not have him reply to John Warde in a plea of trespass; ordered as above [i.e. to appoint better pledges].[95]

1385 - Robert Robhood of Walsham le Willows (1)

[9 Mar. 1385:]
Robert Robhood amerced ld. for leave to agree with John Warde in a plea of
trespass.[96]

1385 - Robert Robhood of Walsham le Willows (2)

[9 Mar. 1385:]
Thomas Kembald chaplain amerced 3d. for his unlawful complaint against Robert
Robhood in a plea of debt.[97]

1390 - John Robhood of Walsham le Willows and his sons

[5 Apr. 1390:]
Surrenders [...] Nicholas Robhood chaplain and Peter Robhood, outside the court, into the hands
of Walter Fraunceys the hayward, in the presence of Robert Robhood and others
of the homage, to the use of John Hawys and his heirs, 2a. of villein land, parcel
ofthe tenement formerly of John Robhood, granted to him in the same form, fine
40d.[98]

Nicholas Robhood

Nicholas Robhood was one of the six sons of John Robhood (I); see 1365 entry relating to John Robhood (I) above.

See the following entries:

1365 - John Robhood of Walsham le Willows and his sons

[20 Mar. 1365:]
The jurors present that John Robhood [1], who lately died, held from the lord a mes-
suage and 14a. of villein land, and the lord had as heriot a mare, worth ½ mark.
His sons, Robert, Nicholas, Peter, Walter, Richard and John, villeins by blood,
are his nearest heirs because the tenements are partible between males by the cus-
tom [of the manor].65 They came and received the said tenements from the lord to
hold to them and their heirs, by services etc., and they have entry by the heriot,
pledge for services Nicholas Patel.[99]

1368 - Nicholas Robhood of Walsham le Willows

[5 Jul. 1368:]
Nicholas Robhood amerced 2d. for leave to agree with Thomas Noble in a plea of debt.[100]

1368 - Nicholas, Peter and Robert Robhood of Walsham le Willows

[11 Mar. 1368:]
Nicholas Robhood and Peter Robhood each amerced 3d. because they each sold
1a. 1r. of villein land with a fifth part of a messuage to Robert Robhood, their
brother, without leave; ordered etc.[101]

1368 - Nicholas, Robert and Peter Robhood of Walsham le Willows

[5 Jul. 1368:]
Surrenders: [...] Nicholas Robhood to Robert Robhood and his heirs, 1a. 1r. of villein land with a
quarter of a messuage, granted to him by the rod, to hold by services and customs
etc., fine 40d, pledges Thomas Noble and Walter Fraunceys.
Peter Robhood to Robert Robhood and his heirs, 1a. 1r. of villein land and a quarter
of a messuage, granted to him in the same form, fine 40d. pledges as above.[102]

1370 - Nicholas and Peter Robhood of Walsham le Willows

[18 Mar. 1370:]
Ordered to attach Nicholas Robhood to reply to Peter Robhood in a plea of debt, and Alexander the clerk to reply to John Dynewald in a like plea.[103]

1384 - Nicholas Robhood of Walsham le Willows

[7 Sep. 1384:]
Nicholas Robhood chaplain amerced 2d. for leave to agree with John Lester in a
plea of debt..[104]

1390 - John Robhood of Walsham le Willows and his sons

[5 Apr. 1390:]
Surrenders [...] Nicholas Robhood chaplain and Peter Robhood, outside the court, into the hands
of Walter Fraunceys the hayward, in the presence of Robert Robhood and others
of the homage, to the use of John Hawys and his heirs, 2a. of villein land, parcel
ofthe tenement formerly of John Robhood, granted to him in the same form, fine
40d.[105]

Peter Robhood (II)

Peter Robhood (II) was one of the six sons of John Robhood (I); see 1365 entry relating to John Robhood (I) above. He should possibly be identified with Peter Robhood (I) above.

See the following entries:

1365 - John Robhood of Walsham le Willows and his sons

[20 Mar. 1365:]
The jurors present that John Robhood [1], who lately died, held from the lord a mes-
suage and 14a. of villein land, and the lord had as heriot a mare, worth ½ mark.
His sons, Robert, Nicholas, Peter, Walter, Richard and John, villeins by blood,
are his nearest heirs because the tenements are partible between males by the cus-
tom [of the manor].65 They came and received the said tenements from the lord to
hold to them and their heirs, by services etc., and they have entry by the heriot,
pledge for services Nicholas Patel.[106]

1368 - Nicholas, Peter and Robert Robhood of Walsham le Willows

[11 Mar. 1368:]
Nicholas Robhood and Peter Robhood each amerced 3d. because they each sold
1a. 1r. of villein land with a fifth part of a messuage to Robert Robhood, their
brother, without leave; ordered etc.[107]

1376 - Catherine Robhood of Walsham le Willows

[11 Jun. 1376:]
Surrenders: Robert Rampolye [l] and Margery Rampolye his wife, she being examined
in court, to John Hawys and his heirs, a plot of land measuring 2p. in length and 2p.
in breadth, granted to him by the rod, to hold by services and customs etc., fine 4d.
John Rath [‘Rayth'] to Catherine Robhood [née Typetot] and her heirs, lr. of land
lying in two pieces, granted to her in the same form as above, fine 6d.[108]

1376 - Peter Robhood of Walsham le Willows (3)

[11 Jun. 1376:]
Alice Rampolye amerced 1d. for leave to agree with Robert Sare in a plea of debt;
Agnes Warde 2d. for the same with John Warde in a plea of trespass; Peter Robhood
3d. for the same with Robert Margery [1] in a plea of debt [...][109]

1376 - Peter Robhood of Walsham le Willows (4)

[11 Jun. 1376:]
Peter Robhood amerced 3d. because he intervened [through the enquiry] against Adam
Pidelak in a plea of trespass, with damages of 3d.; and against William Tailor in a
plea of debt of 14d. and 2d. damages; ordered to raise [both sums].[110]

1390 - John and Peter Robhood of Walsham le Willows

[5 Apr. 1390:]
Surrenders [...] Peter Robhood to John Hereward and his heirs, a quarter part of a messuage and
1a. of land, parcel of the tenement formerly of John Robhood, granted to him in
the same form, fine 2s.[111]

1390 - John Robhood of Walsham le Willows and his sons

[5 Apr. 1390:]
Surrenders [...] Nicholas Robhood chaplain and Peter Robhood, outside the court, into the hands
of Walter Fraunceys the hayward, in the presence of Robert Robhood and others
of the homage, to the use of John Hawys and his heirs, 2a. of villein land, parcel
ofthe tenement formerly of John Robhood, granted to him in the same form, fine
40d.[112]

1390 - Peter and Catherine Robhood of Walsham le Willows (1)

[5 Apr. 1390:]
Surrender: Peter Robhood and Catherine Robhood, his wife, she being duly exam-
ined, to John Vincent and his heirs, ½r. ofland of the lord's bondage, of the tene-
ment Typetot, granted to him in the same form as above, fine 6d.[113]

1390 - Peter and Catherine Robhood of Walsham le Willows (2)

[5 Apr. 1390:]
At the last court it was ordered to take into the lord’s hands ½a. of villein land of the
tenement of William Typetot [1], because Peter Robhood sold it to John Ermite
without leave. At this court Peter Robhood and Catherine Robhood, his wife, she
being duly examined, surrendered the said land to the use of the said John, to
hold in the same form as above, fine 12d.[114]

1396 - Peter Robhood of Walsham le Willows

[25 Sep. 1396:]
Peter Robhood amerced 40d. for trespass in the lord's wood at High Hall, cutting
down and sawing up (sarrandum) two ash-trees, without leave.[115]

Catherine Robhood

Catherine Robhood was the wife of Peter Robhood (II) (see preceding section).

See the following entries:

1384 - Peter and Catherine Robhood of Walsham le Willows

[7 Sep. 1384:]
Surrender: Peter Robhood and Catherine Robhood, his wife, she being duly exam-
ined, surrendered to the lord 1r. of villein land, lying in two parcels in the
Wellfield, for him to dispose of it at his will; and the lord granted the said land to
Peter in the same form as above, fine 6d.[116]

1390 - Peter and Catherine Robhood of Walsham le Willows (1)

[5 Apr. 1390:]
Surrender: Peter Robhood and Catherine Robhood, his wife, she being duly exam-
ined, to John Vincent and his heirs, ½r. ofland of the lord's bondage, of the tene-
ment Typetot, granted to him in the same form as above, fine 6d.[117]

1390 - Peter and Catherine Robhood of Walsham le Willows (2)

[5 Apr. 1390:]
At the last court it was ordered to take into the lord’s hands ½a. of villein land of the
tenement of William Typetot [1], because Peter Robhood sold it to John Ermite
without leave. At this court Peter Robhood and Catherine Robhood, his wife, she
being duly examined, surrendered the said land to the use of the said John, to
hold in the same form as above, fine 12d.[118]

Walter Robhood

Walter Robhood was one of the six sons of John Robhood (I). The editor of the court rolls does not explicitly identify the Walter Robhood of the first (1336) entry with the person figuring in the subsequent entries, but they may well have been the same person.

See the following entries:

1336 - Walter Robhood of Walsham le Willows

[5 Nov. 1336:]
John Tailor and Catherine his wife amerced 2d. for damage to Walter Robhood, assessed at 3d.; ordered to raise.[119]

1361 - Walter Robhood of Walsham le Willows

[19 Oct. 1361:]
Ordered to attach by [their] bodies Walter Robhood, William Osbern, Henry
Osbern, John Rampolye, John Clevehog, Nicholas Clevehog and William
Clevehog the sons of John Clevehog, villeins of the lord, who are fugitives.[120]

1362 - Walter Robhood of Walsham le Willows (1)

[21 Jun. 1362:]
Robert Sate essoins of common [suit] by William Elys; and Walter Robhood of the same by Simon Ram[polye].[121]

1362 - Walter Robhood of Walsham le Willows (2)

[5 Sep. 1362:]
Walter Robhood amerced 3d. because he did not warrant his essoin from the last court.[122]

1364 - Olivia and Walter Robhood of Walsham le Willows

[23 Feb. 1364:]
Olivia Robhood, daughter of Walter, villein by blood, amerced ½ mark because she
married Roger Prede without leave.58[123]

1365 - John Robhood of Walsham le Willows and his sons

[20 Mar. 1365:]
The jurors present that John Robhood [1], who lately died, held from the lord a mes-
suage and 14a. of villein land, and the lord had as heriot a mare, worth ½ mark.
His sons, Robert, Nicholas, Peter, Walter, Richard and John, villeins by blood,
are his nearest heirs because the tenements are partible between males by the cus-
tom [of the manor].65 They came and received the said tenements from the lord to
hold to them and their heirs, by services etc., and they have entry by the heriot,
pledge for services Nicholas Patel.[124]

1366 - Walter Robhood of Walsham le Willows

[16 Jun. 1366:]
Surrender: Matilda of the Meadow, daughter of Simon, into the hands of Robert of
Ashfield, in the presence of Walter Robhood villein and others of the homage, to
[p. 86:] the use of Simon Cokerel and his successors, a messuage in Ashfield, which she
holds from the lord by the rod and by rent from increment of ld., granted to him
to hold in the same form, fine 40d.; he swore fealty.[125]

1396 - Walter Robhood of Walsham le Willows

[25 Sep. 1396:]
Nicholas Typetot amerced 2d. for leave to agree with Walter Robhood in a plea of
trespass.[126]

1399 - Walter Robhood of Walsham le Willows

27 Feb. 1399]
Orders were given to the whole homage to place bounds between the tenement and
villein land of Walter Robhood, and those of Nicholas Typetot, in those places
where they are most needed, by the next court, under penalty of 205.[127]

Richard Robhood

Richard Robhood was one of the six sons of John Robhood (I); see 1365 entry relating to John Robhood (I) above.

See the following entries:

1365 - John Robhood of Walsham le Willows and his sons

[20 Mar. 1365:]
The jurors present that John Robhood [1], who lately died, held from the lord a mes-
suage and 14a. of villein land, and the lord had as heriot a mare, worth ½ mark.
His sons, Robert, Nicholas, Peter, Walter, Richard and John, villeins by blood,
are his nearest heirs because the tenements are partible between males by the cus-
tom [of the manor].65 They came and received the said tenements from the lord to
hold to them and their heirs, by services etc., and they have entry by the heriot,
pledge for services Nicholas Patel.[128]

John Robhood (II)

John Robhood (II) was one of the six sons of John Robhood (I); see 1365 entry relating to John Robhood (I) above.

See the following entries:

1365 - John Robhood of Walsham le Willows and his sons

[20 Mar. 1365:]
The jurors present that John Robhood [1], who lately died, held from the lord a mes-
suage and 14a. of villein land, and the lord had as heriot a mare, worth ½ mark.
His sons, Robert, Nicholas, Peter, Walter, Richard and John, villeins by blood,
are his nearest heirs because the tenements are partible between males by the cus-
tom [of the manor].65 They came and received the said tenements from the lord to
hold to them and their heirs, by services etc., and they have entry by the heriot,
pledge for services Nicholas Patel.[129]

Agnes Robhood

It is not clear how Agnes Robhood was related to the other Robhoods. She married Walter Norreys in 1338 (see entry of that date).[130]

See the following entries:

1338 - Agnes Robhood of Walsham le Willows

[2 Jul. 1338:]
Agnes Robhood pays 2s. fine for leave to marry Walter Norreys, pledge Walter.[131]

1365 - Agnes Robhood of Walsham le Willows

[9 Jul. 1365:]
Robert Rampolye, Walter Rampolye and Agnes Robhood each amerced 3d. because
[p. 80:] they brewed and sold ale in breach of the assize; William Cook [1], Thomas King
and William Jay each amerced 2d. for the same on one occasion.[132]

Matilda Robhood

It is not clear how Matilda Robhood was related to the other Robhoods. She married William Cook in 1350 (see entry of that year).[133]

See the following entries:

1349 - Matilda Robhood of Walsham le Willows

[15 Jun. 1349:]
Isabella the daughter of William the miller held a messuage 2½a. of land by the rod; no heriot; heir is Robert Hereward chaplain, the son of Matthew, who pays 16d. fine for entry. Afterwards he surrendered the tenement to Matilda Rohood and her heirs; if she should die without an heir, the tenement shall revert to Robert's rightful heirs, pledge the Hayward.[134]

1350 - Matilda Robhood of Walsham le Willows (1)

[3 Feb. 1350:]
Matilda Rohood gave birth outside wedlock, childwite 2s. 8d.[135]

1350 - Matilda Robhood of Walsham le Willows (2)

[3 Feb. 1350:]
Matilda Robhood pays 5s. fine for leave to marry William Cook, pledge the hayward.[136]

Olivia Robhood

Olivia, daughter of Walter Robhood married Roger Prede in 1364 (see entry below). The latter occurs frequently in the records.[137]

See the following entries:

1364 - Olivia and Walter Robhood of Walsham le Willows

[23 Feb. 1364:]
Olivia Robhood, daughter of Walter, villein by blood, amerced ½ mark because she
married Roger Prede without leave.58[138]

Robhood – without Christian name

The two 1318 entries probably refer to William Robhood (I) or William Robhood (II). It is debatable whether "Robhood" in the 1328 entry should be construed as a surname or place-name.

See the following entries:

1318 - Robhood of Walsham le Willows (1)

[17 Jan. 1318:]
Ordered as elsewhere to distrain William at the Green in 3½a. of land, parcel of the tenement of William Cook, for services and customs withheld, and also in 1a. formerly of William Springold and Robhood [sic] [...][139]

1318 - Robhood of Walsham le Willows (2)

[6 Sep. 1318:]
Again ordered to distrain William and Agnes at the Green in 3½a. of land, parel of the tenement formerly of William Cook, and in 1a. formerly of William Springold and Robhood [...][140]

1328 - Robhood of Walsham le Willows

[22 Mar. 1328:]
William of Cranmer the elder, John Man, William Springold, Walter Springold, Walter Payn and Elias Typetot, jurors, to certify whether John Spileman holds ½r. of land of the tenement Robetels, and Simon Peyntour holds 3r. of the tenement Swiftes, and Thomas Fuller holds ½r. of the tenement Gores, and whether Stephen Cooper owes 4d. annual rent for the tenement Robhood, which the tenants of these tenements say they do not hold, and seek an enquiry. [...][141]

1376 - Robert Robhood and tenement Robhood of Walsham le Willows

[11 Jun. 1376:]
Robert Robhood to John Hereward and his heirs, three parts of a messuage and 8a.3r.
of land of the tenement Robhood, granted to him in the same form [i.e. 'by the rod, to hold by services and customs etc.'], fine 20s.[142]

Robetel

In view of the uncertain etymology of the surname Robhood it is perhaps worth noting that there were in Walsham le Willows and its immediate neighbourhood from the late 13th century to 1354 at least two persons with another surname beginning with "Rob". R. Robetel figures under the township of Langham, c. 3 km SW of Walsham le Willows, on the 1283 Suffolk lay subsidy roll,[143] and a Robert Robetel occurs in the Walsham le Willows court rolls for 1327, 1328, 1332 and 1334, at which latter date he had died.[144] I have no evidence that R. Robetel of 1283 and Robert Robetel of the 1330's were one and the same person, but this is obviously possible. A John Robetel makes his only appearance in the Walsham le Willows court rolls on his death in 1354.[145]

Maypole or maple

The Walsham le Willows court rolls for 1318 include this entry:

Surrender: Nicholas Goche to William Chapman and his heirs, 1r. of land at the Maypole ['le Mapol'], granted to him to hold in bondage by customs and services, fine 9d., pledge John the Hayward; William swore customary fealty[146]

I feel fairly certain this is in fact a reference to a maple, i.e. a tree of the genus acer. If "Mapol" means "maypole", we note that:

  • the use of a maypole as a landmark implies that it remained in situ year round and had already been there for some time. I believe stationary maypoles are found mainly in towns and cities with less easy access to trees.
  • the reference antedates by several decades the earliest record evidence for the use of maypoles (under any name) in England.[147]
  • the reference antedates by 235 years the first use of the word "maypole" cited in OED2.[148]
  • the maypole, an object which served as the focus for communal dancing and feasting, was nonetheless located on or immediately adjacent to a piece of land used for agricultural purposes by its possessors.
  • the use of a capital 'M' in 'Mapol' might be taken to indicate that 'Ma' is 'May', the name of the month. Names of months are of course spelled with an initial capital in modern English, but this is by no means always the case in Middle English.
  • the editor of the court rolls, Ray Lock, supplied the exact MS reading in brackets, indicating perhaps that he felt uncertain "maypole" is the intended word.


Assuming, on the other hand, that 'Mapol' means 'maple', we note that

  • the word has been in documented use since at least as early as 1300, while the compound "maple-tree" is documented already in OE[149]
  • large solitary trees are conspicuous objects which due to their (potential) longevity make excellent landmarks.
  • spellings cited in MED are: maple, mapole, mappil, mapul(le).[150]
  • the use of a capital 'M' in 'Mapol' indicates that the scribe regarded the word as a name. Lock in fact assumes it is a name.[151]
  • at least one other tree in the area was regarded in this period as conspicuous and significant enough to serve, we might almost say, as an address: the court rolls contain a single reference to "Richard of the Peartree" and at least ten to "Robert of the Peartree", one of them occurring during the same court session as the entry on the "Mapol".[152] On one occasion Lock gives us the exact MS reading: "del Pertre".[153] Peartree Farm still existed in Walsham le Willows around the turn of the 20th century,[154] as did several other localities named after trees and plants, e.g. The Beeches,[155] Ivy Cottage,[156] Chestnut House,[157] Cherry Tree Inn[158] Four Ashes Farm, [159] Elm Low Barn,[160] Appletree Farm.[161]

Taking all this into consideration I do not think it would be reasonable to insist that the 1318 court roll entry is the first record evidence for a Maypole on English soil. If, as I believe, Lock is mistaken in reading "Mapol" as "Maypole", he is not the first scholar to make this mistake. In her 1951 study of maypoles, May trees and May customs, the Swedish ethnologist Mai Fossenius took for granted that a late 14th century boundary mark mentioned by Dugdale, the "Lostock-mepul" was a maypole,[162] but a natural object such as a large maple tree makes a rather better boundary mark than a manmade, moveable one, and although little is downright impossible in Middle English "orthography", "me" would be a somewhat unusual spelling for the name of the month.

Sources

Maps

Background

Also see

Notes

  1. See entry: 1283 - R Robehod of Walsham le Willows; Dodd, Kenneth Melton, ed. The Field Book of Walsham-le-Willows 1577 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XVII) ([Ipswich], 1974), p. 165, s.n. 'Robwood, John'; p. 166, s.n. 'Robwood, John'; Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 1303-1350 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLI) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1998), p. 355, s.n. 'Robhood'; McLaughlin, Audrey. 'The Beeches and it’s Occupants', Walsham Village History Group Quarterly Review, No,. 16 (January 2001).
  2. Dodd. op. cit., p. 165, s.n. 'Robwood, John', and p. 166, s.n. 'Robwood, John'.
  3. Lock. op. cit., pp. 59, 334, and as per index of persons, p. 355.
  4. Several references to John Robwoods are found in McLaughlin, Audrey. 'After the Plague', Walsham Village History Group Quarterly Review, No,. 32 (January 2005); Turner, James. 'Mary Martin – A Seven Year Old Apprentice', Walsham Village History Group Quarterly Review, No,. 13 (April 2002); McLaughlin, Audrey. 'The Early History of The Six Bells (medieval name Fullers)', Walsham Village History Group Quarterly Review, No,. 29 (April 2004).
  5. op. cit.
  6. Powell, Edgar, ed. A Suffolk Hundred in the Year 1283 (Cambridge, 1910), table 33 (skin 52).
  7. Lock. op. cit., p. 56 [item 6] and n. 10.
  8. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 1303-1350 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLI) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1998), p. 59. Record translation by Lock.
  9. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 1303-1350 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLI) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1998), p. 64. Record translation by Lock.
  10. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 1303-1350 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLI) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1998), p. 79. Record translation by Lock.
  11. See page on the record entry 1317 - William Robhood of Walsham le Willows (1).
  12. Lock. op.cit., p. 56 [item 6] and n. 10.
  13. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 1303-1350 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLI) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1998), p. 59. Record translation by Lock.
  14. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 1303-1350 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLI) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1998), p. 64. Record translation by Lock.
  15. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 1303-1350 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLI) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1998), p. 79. Record translation by Lock.
  16. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 1303-1350 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLI) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1998), p. 61. Record translation by Lock.
  17. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 1303-1350 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLI) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1998), p. 62. Record translation by Lock.
  18. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 1303-1350 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLI) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1998), p. 67. Record translation by Lock.
  19. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 1303-1350 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLI) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1998), p. 83. Record translation by Lock.
  20. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 1303-1350 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLI) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1998), p. 83. Record translation by Lock.
  21. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 1303-1350 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLI) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1998), p. 79. Record translation by Lock.
  22. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 1303-1350 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLI) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1998), p. 109. Record translation by Lock.
  23. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 1303-1350 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLI) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1998), p. 122. Record translation by Lock.
  24. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 1303-1350 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLI) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1998), p. 128. Record translation by Lock.
  25. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 1303-1350 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLI) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1998), p. 129. Record translation by Lock.
  26. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 1303-1350 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLI) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1998), p. 149. Record translation by Lock.
  27. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 1303-1350 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLI) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1998), p. 148. Record translation by Lock.
  28. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 1303-1350 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLI) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1998), p. 160. Record translation by Lock.
  29. Lock. op. cit. inadvertently omits Peter Robhood from the index of persons (p. 355).
  30. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 1303-1350 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLI) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1998), p. 61. Lock's translation.
  31. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 97. Record translation by Lock.
  32. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 107. Record translation by Lock.
  33. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 107. Record translation by Lock.
  34. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 108. Record translation by Lock.
  35. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 120. Record translation by Lock.
  36. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 123. Record translation by Lock.
  37. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 123. Record translation by Lock.
  38. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 124. Record translation by Lock.
  39. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 145. Record translation by Lock.
  40. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 148. Record translation by Lock.
  41. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 148. Record translation by Lock.
  42. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 1303-1350 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLI) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1998), p. 116. Record translation by Lock.
  43. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 1303-1350 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLI) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1998), p. 117. Record translation by Lock.
  44. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 1303-1350 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLI) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1998), p. 133. Record translation by Lock.
  45. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 1303-1350 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLI) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1998), p. 149. Record translation by Lock.
  46. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 1303-1350 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLI) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1998), p. 162. Record translation by Lock.
  47. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 1303-1350 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLI) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1998), p. 177. Record translation by Lock.
  48. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 1303-1350 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLI) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1998), p. 177. Record translation by Lock.
  49. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 1303-1350 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLI) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1998), p. 187. Record translation by Lock.
  50. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 1303-1350 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLI) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1998), p. 205. Record translation by Lock.
  51. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 1303-1350 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLI) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1998), p. 253. Record translation by Lock.
  52. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 1303-1350 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLI) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1998), p. 256. Record translation by Lock.
  53. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 1303-1350 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLI) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1998), p. 257. Record translation by Lock.
  54. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 1303-1350 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLI) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1998), p. 269. Record translated by Lock.
  55. Lock. op. cit., p. 271. Record translated by Lock.
  56. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 1303-1350 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLI) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1998), p. 301. Record translation by Lock.
  57. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 1303-1350 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLI) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1998), p. 314. Record translation by Lock.
  58. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 1303-1350 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLI) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1998), p. 334. Record translation by Lock.
  59. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 22. Record translation by Lock.
  60. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 41. Record translation by Lock.
  61. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 43. Record translation by Lock.
  62. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 44. Record translation by Lock.
  63. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 50. Record translation by Lock.
  64. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 56. Record translation by Lock.
  65. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 59. Record translation by Lock.
  66. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 62. Record translation by Lock.
  67. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 62. Record translation by Lock.
  68. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 75. Record translation by Lock.
  69. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 76. Record translation by Lock.
  70. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 76. Record translation by Lock.
  71. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 78. Record translation by Lock.
  72. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 168. Record translation by Lock.
  73. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 168. Record translation by Lock.
  74. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 194.
  75. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 195. Record translation by Lock.
  76. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 78. Record translation by Lock.
  77. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 84. Record translation by Lock.
  78. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 85. Record translation by Lock.
  79. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p 88. Record translation by Lock.
  80. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 89. Record translation by Lock.
  81. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 90. Record translation by Lock.
  82. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 91. Record translation by Lock.
  83. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 96.
  84. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 97. Record translation by Lock.
  85. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 99. Record translation by Lock.
  86. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 99. Record translation by Lock.
  87. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 102. Record translation by Lock.
  88. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 104. Record translation by Lock.
  89. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 107. Record translation by Lock.
  90. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 108. Record translation by Lock.
  91. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 117. Record translation by Lock.
  92. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 121. Record translation by Lock.
  93. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), pp. 122-23. Record translation by Lock.
  94. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 125. Record translation by Lock.
  95. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 144. Record translation by Lock.
  96. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 146. Record translation by Lock.
  97. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 148. Record translation by Lock.
  98. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 168. Record translation by Lock.
  99. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 78. Record translation by Lock.
  100. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 98. Record translation by Lock.
  101. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 96.
  102. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 97. Record translation by Lock.
  103. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 107. Record translation by Lock.
  104. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 144. Record translation by Lock.
  105. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 168. Record translation by Lock.
  106. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 78. Record translation by Lock.
  107. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 96.
  108. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 125. Record translation by Lock.
  109. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 125. Record translation by Lock.
  110. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 125. Record translation by Lock.
  111. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 168. Record translation by Lock.
  112. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 168. Record translation by Lock.
  113. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 168. Record translation by Lock.
  114. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 168. Record translation by Lock.
  115. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 195.
  116. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 145. Record translation by Lock.
  117. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 168. Record translation by Lock.
  118. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 168. Record translation by Lock.
  119. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 1303-1350 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLI) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1998), p. 206. Record translation by Lock.
  120. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 61. Record translation by Lock.
  121. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 64. Record translation by Lock.
  122. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 65. Record translation by Lock.
  123. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 74. Record translation by Lock.
  124. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 78. Record translation by Lock.
  125. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), pp 85-86. Record translation by Lock.
  126. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 195.
  127. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 208. Record translation by Lock.
  128. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 78. Record translation by Lock.
  129. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 78. Record translation by Lock.
  130. For this Walter Norreys, see Lock. op. cit., p. 352, s.n. 'Noreys, Walter' [1]. There are no further entries relating to Agnes Robhood in the court rolls; the 'Noreys, Agnes' listed in the index, Lock. op. cit., p. 352, is a distinct person.
  131. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 1303-1350 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLI) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1998), p. 225. Lock's translation.
  132. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 1303-1350 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLI) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1998), pp. 79-80. Lock's translation.
  133. This William Cook occurs frequently in the court rolls; see Lock. op. cit., p. 344, s.n. 'Cook, William(2)' [sic].
  134. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 1303-1350 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLI) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1998), p. 323. Record translation by Lock.
  135. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 1303-1350 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLI) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1998), p. 331. Record translation by Lock.
  136. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 1303-1350 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLI) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1998), p. 334. Record translation by Lock.
  137. See Lock. op. cit., p. 221, s.n. 'Prede, Roger'.
  138. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 74. Record translation by Lock.
  139. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 1303-1350 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLI) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1998), p. 75. Record translation by Lock.
  140. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 1303-1350 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLI) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1998), p. 75. Record translation by Lock.
  141. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 1303-1350 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLI) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1998), p. 106. Record translation by Lock.
  142. Lock, Ray, ed.; Bailey, Mark, general ed. The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 135-1400 (Suffolk Records Society, vol. XLV) (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), p. 125. Record translation by Lock.
  143. Powell, Edgar, ed. A Suffolk Hundred in the Year 1283 (Cambridge, 1910), table 20 (skin 8).
  144. Lock. op. cit., pp. 103, 116, 148, 168.
  145. Lock (2002), p. 40.
  146. Lock. op. cit., p. 68. "1r." is one rood, i.e. one quarter of an acre.
  147. See Hutton, Ronald. The Stations of the Sun (Oxford and New York, 1996), pp. 233, for the earliest evidence of maypoles in England.
  148. OED2, s.n. maypole, 1. There are no occurrences in MED, s.n. Mai (n.2). The latter dictionary has no entry for the compound "maypole".
  149. MED, s.n. māpel (n.)
  150. loc. cit. IRHB's italics.
  151. Lock's index of places has a reference to the passage under 'Maypole' (p. 65), but it is not found under 'Trees' in the index of subjects (p. 373). No occurrence of a word denoting a (kind of) tree, as per index of subjects, p. 373, s.n. "Trees", has a capital first letter.
  152. Lock. op. cit., index of persons, p. 353 s.nn. "Peartree, Richard of the", "Peartree, Robert of the".
  153. Lock. op. cit., p. 64 (17 Jan. 1318, item [1])
  154. 6" O.S. map Suffolk Sheet XXXV.NW (1905, rev. 1903) (at NLS).
  155. 6" O.S. map Suffolk Sheet XXXV.NW (1885, surveyed 1885) (at NLS).
  156. Ibid.
  157. Ibid.
  158. 6" O.S. map Suffolk Sheet XXXV.NW (1885, surveyed 1885) (at NLS).
  159. 6" O.S. map Suffolk Sheet XXXV.SW (1885, surveyed 1884) (at NLS).
  160. 6" O.S. map Suffolk Sheet XXXV.SW (1905, rev. 1903) (at NLS).
  161. Ibid.; also showing Peartree Farm
  162. Fossenius, Mai. Majgren Majträd Majstång: En Etnologisk-Kulturhistorisk Studie (Lund, 1951), p. 90. Fossenius's italics.